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高速加工中心的数控系统概述

日期:2017-08-10 作者: 人气:1899

高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心是(shi)(shi)一种可(ke)(ke)以对(dui)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)工(gong)件(jian)进行(xing)(xing)高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)一种工(gong)具能(neng)够如此快(kuai)速的(de)(de)(de)进行(xing)(xing)工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)除了因为高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)精(jing)密度(du)和成熟的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术之(zhi)外(wai)更多的(de)(de)(de)还是(shi)(shi)得利与其优秀的(de)(de)(de)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong),在当前的(de)(de)(de)机床加(jia)(jia)工(gong)行(xing)(xing)业中(zhong)(zhong)为视(shi)线高(gao)(gao)速稳定的(de)(de)(de)高(gao)(gao)精(jing)度(du)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)运(yun)行(xing)(xing)快(kuai)速且功(gong)能(neng)强大的(de)(de)(de)计(ji)算机数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)是(shi)(shi)必(bi)不可(ke)(ke)少,需要注(zhu)意的(de)(de)(de)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心的(de)(de)(de)数控系(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)必(bi)须能(neng)够足够快(kuai)地处理数控程(cheng)序(xu)代码段(duan)以保持程(cheng)序(xu)中(zhong)(zhong)规定的(de)(de)(de)进给速度(du)。

 

高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)中心在实(shi)(shi)际运行(xing)中是(shi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)用于测(ce)量一(yi)次(ci)工(gong)作台的实(shi)(shi)际位置并发出一(yi)次(ci)进(jin)给命令(ling)(ling)所用的时间,对(dui)于伺服(fu)周期和代(dai)码(ma)段(duan)处理时间是(shi)计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的两个重要(yao)参数(shu)(shu)及其概念。计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)处理并完成一(yi)条加(jia)工(gong)指令(ling)(ling)代(dai)码(ma)段(duan)规定(ding)(ding)的位移所花费的时间。 计算(suan)(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)系(xi)统(tong)的这(zhei)两个参数(shu)(shu)对(dui)于高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)中心来说非常(chang)重要(yao),因为他们将决定(ding)(ding)机(ji)床的加(jia)工(gong)速(su)度和加(jia)工(gong)精度。在这(zhei)里,精度意味着在采(cai)用线性插补时,用直线段(duan)来逼(bi)近零件轮廊所允(yun)许的最大误差。

 

我们(men)可(ke)以(yi)(yi)看(kan)到在(zai)高(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)必须(xu)保证形成精(jing)确的(de)(de)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji),另外,在(zai)用直线(xian)段(duan)来逼近零(ling)件轮廊时,为了(le)保证精(jing)度(du),直线(xian)段(duan)势必很(hen)短,从而使得零(ling)件程序变(bian)得很(hen)长。基于此,计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)需(xu)要(yao)一个(ge)(ge)32位的(de)(de)微处理器(qi),有(you)时甚(shen)至需(xu)要(yao)多个(ge)(ge)微处理器(qi),以(yi)(yi)完成高(gao)速插(cha)补、高(gao)速段(duan)处理和良好的(de)(de)待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(Look Ahead)功能(neng)。为了(le)能(neng)预先(xian)知道(dao)刀具(ju)(ju)路(lu)径以(yi)(yi)避免在(zai)拐角 处出现事故(gu),计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)最好是(shi)具(ju)(ju)有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)多段(duan)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong) NC代码轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)的(de)(de)能(neng)力,这与司机(ji)必须(xu)有(you)良好的(de)(de)视野(ye) 范围才能(neng)高(gao)速驾驶(shi)一辆汽车有(you)些(xie)类(lei)似。 目前(qian)所有(you)较(jiao)(jiao)高(gao)水平的(de)(de)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)都具(ju)(ju)有(you)待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)能(neng)力。所谓待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)轨(gui)迹(ji)监控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong),就是(shi)计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)在(zai)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)制加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)同时扫描待(dai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)的(de)(de)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)代码,看(kan)刀具(ju)(ju)路(lu)径是(shi)否有(you)方向(xiang)上的(de)(de)突然改(gai)变(bian),如果计(ji)(ji)算(suan)机(ji)数(shu)(shu)控(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)(kong)系统(tong)(tong)发(fa)现前(qian)面必须(xu)改(gai)变(bian)进给方向(xiang)时,自动(dong)执行加(jia)(jia)减速程序,以(yi)(yi)避免高(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)中心偏离(li)程序中规(gui)定的(de)(de)切削加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)路(lu)径。


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